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APA Styles

APA Reference Examples (6th Edition)

Journal Articles

Journal article in print: 1 author
[In-text citation: (Şentürk, 2009: 63)]

  • Şentürk, R. (2009). Açık medeniyet ve sosyal içerme. Muhafazakar Düşünce, 6(21-22), 41-49..

Journal article in print: 2 authors
[In-text citation: (Tonta & Ünal, 2005: 88)]

  • Tonta, Y., & Ünal, Y. (2005). Scatter of journals and literature obsolescence ref­lected in document delivery requests. Journal of the American Society for In­formation Science & Technology, 56(1), 84-94.

Journal article in print: 3-6 authors
[In-text citation: First citation: (Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, Harlow, & Bach, 1993: 1120); Subsequent citations: (Kernis et al., 1993: 1130)]

  • Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., Harlow, T., & Bach, J. S. (1993). There’s more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1190-1204.

Journal article in print: More than 7 authors
[In-text citation: (Lakic et al., 2012: 3)]

  • Lakic, B., Arık, M., Aune, S., Barth, K. L., Belov, A. S., Borghi, S. …  Zioutas, K. (2012). Status and perspectives of the CAST experiment. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 375(2), 1-4. https://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/375/1/022001

Journal article online: Digital Object Identifier supplied
[In-text citation: (Koç, 2002: 260)]

  • Koç, E. (2002). The impact of gender in marketing communications: The role of cognitive and affective cues. Journal of Marketing Communications, 8(4), 257-275. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13527260210145993

Journal article online: No DOI supplied (freely available on the Web)
[In-text citation: First citation: (Aygören, Yeşilyurt, Güloğlu, & Küçükkaplan, 2015: 208) ; Subsequent citations: (Aygören et al., 2015: 208)]

  • Aygören, H., Yeşilyurt, M., Güloğlu, B., & Küçükkaplan, İ. (2015). Türk bankacılık sektöründe hisse senedi performansı ve etkinlik arasındaki ilişki. Doğuş Üniversitesi Dergisi, 16(2), 203-215. Retrieved from https://journal.dogus.edu.tr/ojs/index.php/duj/article/view/914

Journal article online: Advance publication
[In-text citation: (Koç & Altınay, 2007)]

  • Koç, E., & Altınay, G. (2007). An analysis of seasonality in monthly per person tourist spending in Turkish inbound tourism from a market segmentation perspective. Tourism Management. Advance online publication. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2006.01.003

Journal article online: Institutional repository
[In-text citation: (Müslümov, in press)]

  • Müslümov, A. (in press). Merger announcements and market efficiency: Do markets predict synergetic gains from mergers properly?. Doğuş Üniversitesi Dergisi. Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/11376/1290

Journal article submitted for publication
[In-text citation: Kurt & Zehir, 2016)]

  • Kurt, A. & Zehir, C. (2016). The relationship between cost leadership strategy, total quality management applications and financial performance. Doğuş Üniversitesi Dergisi. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Books and eBooks

Book: Single author
[In-text citation: (Şentürk, 2014: 175)]

  • Şentürk, R. (2014). Açık medeniyet: Çok medeniyetli toplum ve dünyaya doğru. İstanbul: İz Yayıncılık.

Book: Two authors
[In-text citation: (Page & Stritzke, 2015: 88)]

  • Page, A. C., & Stritzke, W. G. K. (2015). Clinical psychology for trainees: Foundations of science-informed practice (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Book: 3 authors
[In-text citation: First citation: (Ranzijn, McConnochie & Nolan, 2009) Subsequent citations: (Ranzijn et al., 2009: 66)]

  • Ranzijn, R., McConnochie, K., & Nolan, W. (2009). Psychology and indigenous Australians: Foundations of cultural competence. South Yarra, Vic: Palgrave Macmillan.

Book: 4 or more authors
[In-text citation: (Wolfe et al., 2015: 120)]

  • Wolfe, J. M., Kluender, K. R., Dennis, L. M., Bartoshuk, L. M., Herz, R. S., Lederman, S. J., & Merfeld, D. M. (2015). Sensation & perception (4th ed.). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.

Book: Different editions
[In-text citation: (Passer & Smith, 2015: 77)]

  • Passer, M. W., & Smith, R. E. (2015). Psychology: The science of mind and behaviour (2nd ed.). North Ryde, NSW: McGraw-Hill Education.

Book: No author
[In-text citation: (The Australian Oxford dictionary, 1999: 50)]

  • The Australian Oxford dictionary (3rd ed.). (1999). Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Book: Editor
[In-text citation: (Hallinan, 2006: 36)]

  • Hallinan, M. T. (Ed.). (2006). Handbook of the sociology of education. New York: Springer.

Book: 2 or more editors
[In-text citation: (Day & Antonakis, 2012: 63)]

  • Day, D. V., & Antonakis, J. (Eds.). (2012). The nature of leadership (2nd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Book: Organisation as author
[In-text citation: (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2000: 92)]

  • Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2000). Population by age and sex, New South Wales, 30 June 2000 (ABS Cat. no. 3235.1). Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Author.

Book: Chapter
[ie., article] in an edited book
[In-text citation: (Groundwater-Smith, 2007: 135)]

  • Groundwater-Smith, S. (2007). As rain is to fields, so good teachers are to students. In S. Knipe (Ed.), Middle years schooling: Reframing adolescence (pp. 151-170). Frenchs Forest, N.S.W: Pearson Education Australia.

Book: Translation
[In-text citation: (Rowley, 1996: 150)]

  • Rowley, J. (1996). Bilginin düzenlenmesi: Bilgi erişime giriş. (Çev. S. Karakaş, H. Ü. Can, A. Yıldızeli, B. Kayıran). Ankara: Türk Kütüphaneciler Derneği. (Orijinal yayın tarihi, 1992)

eBook: Entire book
[In-text citation: (Chisum, 2006: 77)]

  • Chisum, W. J. (2006). Crime reconstruction
    [Adobe Digital Editions]. Retrieved from Ebook Library.

eBook: Chapter – from a database
[In-text citation: (Mitchell, 1913: 88)]

  • Mitchell, H. W. (1913). Alcoholism and the alcoholic psychoses. In W. A. White & S. E. Jelliffe (Eds.), The modern treatment of nervous and mental diseases (Vol. 1, pp. 287-330). Retrieved from PsycBOOKS.

Book: Different works by the same author in the same year
[In-text citation: (Glenn & Johnson, 1964a: 90); (Glenn & Johnson, 1964b: 90)]

  • Glenn, W. H., & Johnson, D. A. (1964a). Calculating devices. London: John Murray.
  • Glenn, W. H., & Johnson, D. A. (1964b). Graphs. London: Murray.

Book Chapter

Chapter in a book in print
[In-text citation: (Onan & Sennaroğlu, 2009: 69)]

  • Onan, K. & Sennaroğlu, B. (2009). Comparative study of production control systems through simulation. In N. Mastorakis, J. Sakellaris (Eds.), Advances in Numerical Methods (67-78. ss.). New York ; London: Springer. https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-76483-2_6

Dictionary / Encyclopaedia Entries

Reference book: Entry
[In-text citation: (Keyormarsi, O’Leary & Pardee, 2007: 200)]

  • Keyormarsi, K., O’Leary, N., & Pardee, A. B. (2007). Cell division. In McGraw-Hill encyclopedia of science & technology (9th ed., Vol. 3, pp. 618-621). New York: McGraw-Hill.

eReference book: Entry
[In-text citation: (Keyormarsi, O’Leary & Pardee, 2014: 200)]

  • Pegrum, M. (2009). Keyormarsi, K., & Pardee, A. B. (2014). Cell division. In McGraw-Hill encyclopedia of science & technology. Retrieved from AccessScience.

Web Sources

Web page
[In-text citation: (Australian Psychological Society, 2008)]

  • Australian Psychological Society. (2008). Substance abuse: Position statement. Retrieved from https://www.psychology.org.au/publications/statements/substance/

Web page: No author
[In-text citation: (“Budapeşte Açık Erişim”, 2012)]

  • Budapeşte açık erişim girişimi. (2012). Retrieved from https://www.budapestopenaccessinitiative.org/translations/turkish-translation

Web page: No date
[In-text citation: (Şentürk, n.d.)]

  • Şentük, R. (n.d.). Rektörün Mesajı. Erişim adresi https://www.ihu.edu.tr/tr/rektorun-mesaji

Webpage: No author or date: With a quote
[In-text citation: (“Heuristic”, t.y., para 1) Count paragraphs if not numbered]

  • Heuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from https://www.m-w.com/dictionary/heuristic

Press release
[In-text citation: (TÜİK, 2016)]

  • TÜİK (2016, Kasım). İşgücü İstatistikleri [Basın bülteni]. Erişim adresi https://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=24624

Discussion forum
[In-text citation: (Malissa, 2008)]

  • Malissa, A. (2008, October 2). Re: Egypt planning DNA test on 3,500 year old mummy
    [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from https://www.topix.com/science/anthropology/ 2008/05/egypt-planning-dna-test-for-3-500-year-old-mummy

[In-text citation: (Brown, 2008)]

  • Çelik, S. (2011, 21 Aralık). Dergilerin indekslenmesi ve etki faktörü (impact factor).
    [Web günlük postası] Erişim adresi https://sonmezcelik.blogspot.com.tr/2011/12/dergilerin-indekslenmesi-ve-etki.html

Electronic mailing list
[In-text citation: (Anderson, 2005)]

  • Anderson, O. (2005, June 2). Re: Psychology of terrorism
    [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from https://archives.econ.utah.edu/archives/theory-frankfurt-school/2005w22/msg00000.htm

[In-text citation:(Sports psychology, n.d.) ]

  • Sports psychology. (n.d.). In The psychology wiki. Retrieved December 2, 2008, from https://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/ Sports_psychology

Lecture Note

Lecture Note
[In-text citation: Saito, (2012)]

  • Saito, T. (2012). Technology and me: A personal timeline of educational technology
    [Powerpoint slides]. Retrieved from https://www.slideshare.net/Bclari25/educational-technology-ppt


Thesis in print: Unpublished
[In-text citation: (Çetinkaya, 2015: 188)]

  • Çetinkaya, Ş. (2015). Stochastic mortality using non – life methods.  (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Doğuş University Institute of Social Sciences, İstanbul.
  • Çelik, S. (1999). Üniversite kütüphanelerinde personel yönetimi ve Türkiye’de durum. (Unpublished master’s thesis). İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Kütüphanecilik Anabilim Dalı, İstanbul.

Thesis in print: Published
[In-text citation: (May, 2007: 67)]

  • May, B. (2007). A survey of radial velocities in the zodiacal dust cloud. Bristol, UK: Canopus Publishing.

Thesis online: Electronic database
[In-text citation: (Rich, 1989: 55)]

  • Rich, P. D. (1989). The rule of ritual in the Arabian Gulf, 1858-1947: The influence of English public schools (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses – UK & Ireland. (AAT 8918197)

Thesis online: Institutional repository
[In-text citation: (Bilir, 2014: 43)]

  • Bilir, C. (2014). Supply chain network optimization model incorporating competitive facility location problems. (Doctoral dissertation, Dogus University, İstanbul). Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/11376/1039

Conference Proceedings and Papers

Paper in conference proceedings in print
[In-text citation: (Game, 2001: 350)]

  • Game, A. (2001). Creative ways of being. In J. R. Morss, N. Stephenson & J. F. H. V. Rappard (Eds.), Theoretical issues in psychology: Proceedings of the International Society for Theoretical Psychology 1999 Conference (pp. 3-12). Sydney: Springer.

Paper in conference proceedings in print: No editor
[In-text citation: (Doğdaş, & Akyokuş, 2013: 3)]

  • Doğdaş, T., & Akyokuş, S. (2013). Document clustering using GIS visualizing and EM clustering method. In 2013 IEEE International Symposium on Innovations in Intelligent Systems and Applications (INISTA) (pp. 1-4). Piscataway, NJ: IEEE. https://dx.doi.org/10.1109/INISTA.2013.6577647

Paper in conference proceedings online: Electronic database
[In-text citation: (Balakrishnan, 2006: 259)]

  • Balakrishnan, R. (2006, March). Why aren’t we using 3D user interfaces, and will we ever? Paper presented at the IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces. https://dx.doi.org/10.1109/vr.2006.148

Conference papers: Unpublished
[In-text citation: (Santhanam, Martin, Goody & Hicks, 2001)]

  • Santhanam, E., Martin, K., Goody, A., & Hicks, O. (2001). Bottom-up steps towards closing the loop in feedback on teaching: A CUTSD project. Paper presented at Teaching and Learning Forum – Expanding horizons in teaching and learning, Perth, Australia, 7-9 February 2001.


Government reports
[In-text citation: (Akbaytürk et al., 2014: 40)]

  • Akbaytürk Çanak, T., Çelik, S., Çetinkaya, İ., Çukadar, S., Güneş, G., Gürdal, G. … Kaygusuz, A. (2014). 2023’e doğru Türkiye’de üniversite kütüphaneleri: Mevcut durum, sorunlar, standartlar ve çözüm önerileri. Ankara: Yükseköğretim Kurulu. Retrieved from https://yok.gov.tr/web/ukr

[In-text citation: First citation: (Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu [TÜİK], 2012: 67); Subsequent citations: (TÜİK, 2012: 67)]

  • Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. (2012). Faaliyet raporu: 2011 mali yılı. Retrieved from https://www.tuik.gov.tr/jsp/duyuru/upload/FR-2011.pdf

Non-government / unofficial reports
[In-text citation: (Kendall, 2011: 99)]

  • Kendall, C. (2011). Report on psychological distress and depression in the legal profession: Prepared for the Council of the Law Society of Western Australia. Retrieved from https://www.mhlcwa.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/Psychological-distress-depression-in-the-legal-profession-16-May-2011.pdf

Standards and Patents

Standard: Print
[In-text citation: (Standards Australia/New Zealand Standard, 1994)]

  • Standards Australia. (1994). Information Processing – Text and office systems – Office Document Architecture (ODA) and Interchange format: Part 10: Formal Specifications (AS/NZS 3951.10:1994). Homebush, NSW: Standards Australia.

Standard online: Electronic database
[In-text citation: (Standards Australia, 2008)]

  • Standards Australia. (2008). Personal flotation devices – General requirements (AS 4758.1-2008). Retrieved from Standards Online.

[In-text citation: (U.S. Patent No. 5,641,424.7, 1996)]

  • Hornak, P. (1996). Resonator for magnetic resonance imaging of the ankle. U.S. Patent No. 5,641,424.7.

Patent online: Electronic database
[In-text citation: (Australian Patent No. AU 2008100919, 2008)]

  • Clark, J. M., & McCallum, J. M. (2008). Method for and composition of excipient suitable for use in herbal formulations and formulations derived therefrom. Australian Patent AU 2008100919. Retrieved from SciFinder.

Official Newspaper

Official Newspaper
[In-text citation: Yedinci Beş Yıllık Kalkınma Planı, 1999)]

  • Yedinci Beş Yıllık Kalkınma Planı 1996-2000. (1995). T.C. Resmi Gazete (22354, 25 Temmuz 1995).